6.1 Europe

The question of trans/national cinema and the film festival circuit’s impact on it reaches European countries and beyond. As the cradle of film festivals, Europe’s encounter with trans/national relations between film and their showcases for (inter)national competition is as old as the festival phenomenon. Lucy Mazdon investigates the role of the Cannes festival as a transnational space (2006) and its relationship to French cinema (2007). The meaning of Cannes for German film (Fründt/Lepel 1987) or Hollywood (Jungen 2008) has also been scrutinized. Several historical studies with a focus on film history during the Cold War era also give insight into the history (of the study) of European film and the way it was discussed across borders at certain international film festivals, which did not conform to the general division of Western and Eastern bloc politics/art (Karl 2007; Kötzing 2007; Moine 2007). A special chapter in this history is the analysis of trans- or intra-national discussions of German film on either side of the Wall: East German film (Haase 2010) and children’s film at the Berlinale (Felsmann 2002), East German film at Oberhausen (Kuhlbrodt 2005), and discussions of (Western) international film in Leipzig (Martini 2007; Kötzing 2004; 2007).

 

Beyer, René, and Alfred Georg Frei, eds. (2008). Die Traumfabrik von gestern: Merseburger DEFA-Filmtage. Halle: Projekte.

Caillé, Patricia (2010). “A Tunisian Film Festival in Paris: Issues in Reception at the Intersection of French and Anglo-American Approaches to Cultural Analysis of the Diasporas.” French Cultural Studies  21:2 (2010): 85–96.

Candeloro, Jean-Pierre, and Cucco Marco (2008). “Cinéma, festivals et retombées: Le cas du festival international du film de Locarno.” Kino CH | Cinéma CH: Rezeption, Ästhetik, Geschichte | Réception, esthétique, histoire. Eds. Alain Boillat, Philipp Brunner, and Barbara Flückiger. Marburg: Schüren. pp. 41–51.

Čulík, Jan, and Emma Čulík (2010). “Karlovy Vary International Film Festival 2009: A Remarkable Showcase of Contemporary Cinema.” Studies in Eastern European Cinema 1:1 (2010): 119–126.

De Valck, Marijke (2003). “Nové objevení Evropy. Historický přehled fenoménu filmvých festivalů [The Reappearance of Europe. A Historical Overview of the Film Festival Phenomenon.]” Iluminace 15:1 (2003): 31–51.

De Valck, Marijke (2007). “As Vária Faces dos Festivais de Cinema Europeus [The Multiple Faces of European Film Festivals].” A Indústria Cinematográfica Internacional: Europa. Ed. Allessandra Meleiro. São Paulo: Escrituras Editora. pp. 213–241.

De Valck, Marijke (2014). “Supporting Art Cinema at a Time of Commercialization: Principles and Practices, the Case of the International Film Festival Rotterdam.” Poetics  42 (2014): 40-59.

Děcká, Eliška (2014). “Karnevaly animátorské komunity: České a slovenské festivaly nezávislé animované tvorby a jejich role pro animátorskou obec.” [Carnivals for the Animation Community. Czech and Slovak Festivals of Independent Animation Films and their Role in the Animation Community.]  Filmove Festivaly | Film Festivals. Spec. Issue of Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 26:1. Ed. Jindřiška Bláhová. Prague. pp. 83–96.

Felsmann, Klaus-Dieter (2002). “Eine feste Bank: DEFA-Kinderfilme in 25 Berlinale-Jahren.” apropos Film 2002: Das Jahrbuch der DEFA-Stiftung. Ed. DEFA-Stiftung. Berlin: Bertz. pp. 190–198.

Fründt, Bodo, and Bernd Lepel. (1987). Träume unter goldenen Palmen | Dreams beneath the Golden Palms: Der deutsche Film auf dem Internationalen Filmfestival in Cannes | German Films at the International Film Festival in Cannes. (Biligual edition) Ed. Eberhard Junkersdorf and Deutsche Export-Union des Deutschen Films e.V. München. Ebersberg: Ed. Achteinhalb.

Galán, Diego (2001). Jack Lemmon nunca cenó aquí: Trece años y un día en el Festival de Cine de San Sebastián. Barcelona: Plaza & Janés.

Galán, Diego (2002). 50 años de rodaje. Festival de Cine de San Sebastián = 50 urte jardunean. Donostiako nazioarteko zinemaldia. Donostia-San Sebastián, Madrid: Festival Internacional de Cine de San Sebastián; Ocho y Medio, Libros de Cine.

Gimello-Mesplomb, Frédéric (2014). Objectif 49: Cocteau et la nouvelle avant-garde. Paris: Séguier.

Gimello-Mesplomb, Frédéric, and Loredana Latil (2003). “Une politique de cinéma: La sélection française pour Cannes.” Protée  31:2 (2003): 17–28.

Haase, Jürgen, ed. (2010). Zwischen uns die Mauer: DEFA-Filme auf der Berlinale. Berlin: Be.bra/Edition Q.

Hofstede, Bart (2000a). “Hoofdstuk 4: Filmfestivals en het Succes van Nederlandse films in het Buitenland.” De Nederlandse Cinema Wereldwijd: De Internationale Positie van de Nederlandse Film. Amsterdam: Boekmanstudies. pp. 101–129.

Hofstede, Bart (2000b). In het Wereldfilmstelsel: Identiteit en Organisatie van de Nederlandse film sedert 1945. PhD Thesis. Delft: Eburon.

Holighaus, Alfred (2011). “Der jüngste deutsche Film auf Festivals.” Kino in Bewegung: Perspektiven des deutschen Gegenwartsfilms. Eds. Thomas Schick, and Tobias Ebbrecht. Wiesbaden: VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften. pp. 337–340.

Jacob, Gilles (2011). Citizen Cannes: The Man behind the Cannes Film Festival. Berlin: Phaidon.

Jelenkovic, Dunja, ed. (2013). Festival Kratkog metra – 60 godina. Monografija Beogradskog festivala dokumentarnog i kratkometražnog filma: The Short Film Fest – 60 Years. Monograph on the Belgrade Documentary and Short Film Festival. Belgrade: FEST Head Office.

Jungen, Christian (2009). Hollywood in Canne$: Die Geschichte einer Hassliebe, 1939-2008. Marburg: Schüren.

Jungen, Christian (2014). Hollywood in Cannes: The History of a Love-hate Relationship. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Jurado Martín, Montserrat, and Alberto Nieto Martín (2014). “Nuevas propuestas, viejos circuitos: El papel de los festivales de cine españoles en la consolidación de los nuevos realizadores. [New Proposals, Old Circuits. The Role of Spanish Film Festivals in the Consolidation of New Directors].” Festivales cinematográficos [Film Festivals]. Spec. Issue of Secuencias: Revista de Historia del Cine 39. Ed. Aida Vallejo. Madrid: MAIA Ediciones. pp. 100–122.

Karl, Lars (2007). “Zwischen politischem Ritual und kulturellem Dialog: Die Moskauer Internationalen Filmfestspiele im Kalten Krieg 1959-1971.” Leinwand zwischen Tauwetter und Frost: Der osteuropäische Spiel- und Dokumentarfilm im Kalten Krieg. Ed. Lars Karl. Berlin: Metropol. pp. 279–298.

Kocer, Suncem (2013). “Making Transnational Publics: Circuits of Censorship and Technologies of Publicity in Kurdish Media Circulation.” American Ethnologist  40:4 (2013): 721–733.

Kopecká, Anna (2014). “Filmový festival v hlavní roli: Případová studie rumunská nová vlna a festival v Cannes.” [The Film Festival in the Leading Role: A Case Study of the Romanian New Wave and the Cannes Festival.]  Filmove Festivaly | Film Festivals. Spec. Issue of Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 26:1. Ed. Jindřiška Bláhová. Prague. pp. 138–141.

Kötzing, Andreas (2004). Die Internationale Leipziger Dokumentar- und Kurzfilmwoche in den 1970er Jahren. Leipzig: Leipziger Universitäts-Verlag.

Kötzing, Andreas (2007). “Zeigen oder nicht zeigen? Das ‘Prinzip der Selbstnominierung’ sozialistischer Filme auf der Leipziger Dokumentarfilmwoche.” Leinwand zwischen Tauwetter und Frost: Der osteuropäische Spiel- und Dokumentarfilm im Kalten Krieg. Ed. Lars Karl. Berlin: Metropol. pp. 299–316.

Kötzing, Andreas (2013). Kultur- und Filmpolitik im Kalten Krieg: Die Filmfestivals von Leipzig und Oberhausen in gesamtdeutscher Perspektive, 1954-1972. Göttingen: Wallstein.

Kuhlbrodt, Dietrich (2005). “DEFA-Filme in Oberhausen: Rückblick auf fünfzig Jahre.” apropos Film 2005: Das Jahrbuch der DEFA-Stiftung. Ed. DEFA-Stiftung. Berlin: Bertz+Fischer. pp. 106–118.

Latil, Loredana (2005). Le festival de Cannes sur la scène internationale. Paris: Nouveau monde.

Loist, Skadi (2011). “Precarious Cultural Work: About the Organization of (Queer) Film Festivals.” Screen  52:2 (2011): 268–273.

Martini, Heidi (2007). Dokumentarfilm-Festival Leipzig: Filme und Politik im Blick und Gegenblick. Berlin: DEFA-Stiftung.

Mazdon, Lucy (2007). “Transnational ‘French’ Cinema: The Cannes Film Festival.” Modern and Contemporary France 15: 1 (2007): 9–20.

Mazdon, Lucy (2006). “The Cannes Film Festival as Transnational Space.” Post Script 25:2 (2006): 19–30.

Moine, Caroline (2005). “‘Le fascisme ordinaire’ de Mikhaïl Romm au festival de Leipzig (1965).” Caméra politique: Cinéma et stalinisme. Ed. Kristian Feigelson. Theorem. 8. Paris: Presse Sorbonne nouvelle. pp. 228–239.

Moine, Caroline (2007). “Blicke über den Eisernen Vorhang: Die internationalen Filmfestivals im Kalten Krieg 1945–1968.” Leinwand zwischen Tauwetter und Frost: Der osteuropäische Spiel- und Dokumentarfilm im Kalten Krieg. Ed. Lars Karl. Berlin: Metropol. pp. 255–278.

Moine, Caroline (2009). “Une Allemagne malgré tout? Le festival international du film documentaire de Leipzig, 1955-1990.” Une Europe malgré tout, 1945-1990: Contacts et réseaux culturels, intellectuels et scientifiques entre Européens dans la guerre froide | Cultural, lntellectual and Scientific Contacts and Networks among Europeans during the Cold War | Kulturelle, intellektuelle und wissenschaftliche Kontakte und Netze unter Europäern im Kalten Kriege. Eds. Antoine Fleury, and Lubor Jílek. Bruxelles; Berlin; Frankfurt/M: P.I.E. Peter Lang. pp. 297–316.

Moine, Caroline (2011). “La FIAPF, une Fédération de Producteurs au coeur des relations internationales après 1945.” [“The FIAPF, a Federation of Film Producers at the Heart of International Relations after 1945.”] Les producteurs: Enjeux créatifs, enjeux financiers. Eds. Laurent Creton, Yannick Dehée, Sébastien Layerle, and Caroline Moine. Paris: Nouveau monde éditions. pp. 249–266.

Moine, Caroline (2014). “Z Cannes přes Karlovy Vary do Západního Berlína a Benátek: mezinárodní filmové festivaly v bouřlivém roce 1968.” [From Karlovy Vary to West Berlin and Venice. International Film Festivals in the Turbulent Year of 1968]  Filmove Festivaly | Film Festivals. Spec. Issue of Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 26:1. Ed. Jindřiška Bláhová. Prague. pp. 39–48.

Munro, Emily J. (2006). “Film Festivals, Film Industries. Debating Inequity and the Cultural Exception.” The Language Problem in European Cinema: Discourses on ‘Foreign-Language Films’ in Criticism, Theory and Practice. PhD Thesis. Glasgow: Univ. of Glasgow, Department of Theatre, Film and Television Studies. (April 2006). pp. 138–185.

Pescatore, Guglielmo (2002). “Pesaro e i nuovi festival.” Storia del cinema italiano: Vol. XI. 1965/1969. Ed. Gianni Canova. Venice/Rome: Marsilio; Edizioni di Bianco e Nero. pp. 520–525.

Pisu, Stefano (2013). Stalin a Venezia: L’Urss alla Mostra del cinema fra diplomazia culturale e scontro ideologico (1932-1953). [Stalin in Venice: The USSR at the Venice Film Festival between Cultural Diplomacy and Ideological Clash (1932-1953)] Preface by Pierre Sorlin. Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.

Redvall, Eva Novrup (2012). “More than Films and Dragon Awards: The Göteborg International Film Festival as a Meeting Place.” Journal of Scandinavian Cinema  2:2 (2012): 135–142.

Renaud, Cécile (2010). “Channel-crossing Festivals: The Cases of the French Film Festival U.K. and Dinard’s Festival du Film Britannique.” Je t’aime… moi non plus: Franco-British Cinematic Relations. Eds. Lucy Mazdon, and Catherine Wheatley. New York: Berghahn Books. pp. 67–80.

Scheighofer, Martin (2000). “Austrian Film between Festival Success and Market Constraints.” After Postmodernism: Austrian Literature and Film in Transition. Ed. Willy Riemer. Riverside, CA: Ariadne Press. pp. 55–61.

Segal, Jérôme, and Christine Blumauer (2011). “Cannes: A French International Festival.” Festivals and the Cultural Public Sphere. Eds. Gerard Delanty, Liana Giorgi, and Monica Sassatelli. Abingdon, New York: Routledge. pp. 156–172.

Stone, Marla (1999). “Challenging Cultural Categories: The Transformation of the Venice Biennale Under Fascism.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies  4:2 (1999): 184–208.

Taillibert, Christel (2014). “Festivales y patrimonio cinematográfico en la era digital: La situación francesa. [Film Festivals and Film Heritage in the Digital Era – The French Situation].” Festivales cinematográficos [Film Festivals]. Spec. Issue of Secuencias: Revista de Historia del Cine 39. Ed. Aida Vallejo. Madrid: MAIA Ediciones. pp. 83–99.

Triana Toribio, Nuria (2011). “FICXixón and Seminci: Two Spanish Film Festivals at the End of the Festival Era.” Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies  12:2 (2011): 217–236.

Vannucci, Enrico (2014). “A Rising Wave: An Analysis of the Ecosystem, Policies and Practices of the Contemporary Italian Short Film Festivals.” Cinergie: Il cinema e le altre arti 6 (2014): 25–33. <http://www.cinergie.it/?p=4923>. (15 May. 2015)

Willemen, Paul (1981). “Pesaro: The Limitations and Strengths of a Cultural Policy.” Framework: The Journal of Cinema and Media  15/16/17 (1981): 96–98.

 

(Last updated: 31 October 2015)