3. Festival Space: Cities, Tourism and Publics

In recent years, research on tourism has contributed significantly to spatial analyses of cultural festivals. There are two perspectives: the “arts and urban development” perspective sees festivals “as a catalyst for urban renewal, attracting tourists and capital investments, enhancing a city’s image and creating new jobs” (Crespi-Valbona/Richards 2007: 106, section 1.3), while the “liveable cities” perspective stresses how communities can appropriate commodified festival events for their own purposes, such as self-identification, and a local sense of community and place. Ros Derrett argues that it is possible to strengthen community cultural development and cultural tourism simultaneously with festivals that share their community’s “culture” with visitors (2000, 2003). At film festivals the connection between the festival’s content and regional distinctiveness of its location, however, is less obvious. Most programs have a strong international character and attract cosmopolitan visitors that want to celebrate and consume world/art cinema. Julian Stringer argues that festivals market both global similarity and conceptual difference, often using local attractions to compete in the contemporary global space economy. Taking the unevenly differentiated power relations between nations and regions into consideration, he regards the international film festival circuit as “a series of diverse, sometimes competing, sometimes cooperating public spheres” (Stringer 2001: 138). In addition, film festivals can be argued to provide counter-public spheres, for culture/aesthetics as well as (leftist) politics (Shapiro 2007; S. Kim 1998, section 9.1).

 

Acciari, Monia (2014). “Film Festival and the Rhythm of Social Inclusivity: The Fluid Spaces of London Indian Film Festival and Florence Indian Film Festival.” Cinergie: Il cinema e le altre arti 6 (2014): 15–24. <http://www.cinergie.it/?p=4911>. (15 May 2015)

Allan, Blaine (1988). “The Festival of Festivals in the Toronto of Torontos.” Queen’s Quarterly 95:4 (1988): 813–823.

Bissell, William Cunningham (2012). “When the Film Festival Comes to (Down)Town: Transnational Circuits, Tourism, and the Urban Economy of Images.” Global Downtowns. Eds. Marina Peterson, and Gary W. McDonogh. Philadelphia: Univ. of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 160–185.

Burgess, Diane (2012). “Bridging the Gap: Film Festival Governance, Public Partners and the ‘Vexing’ Problem of Film Distribution.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies | Revue Canadienne d’Études Cinématographiques  21:1 (2012).

Chan, Felicia (2014). “Film Festivals and Affective Spaces: Singapore’s Majestic Theatre.” Cinergie: Il cinema e le altre arti 6 (2014): 7–14. <http://www.cinergie.it/?p=4905>. (15 May 2015)

Derrett, Ros (2004). “Festivals, Events and the Destination.” Festival and Events Management: An International Arts and Culture Perspective. Eds. Ian Yeoman, Martin Robertson, Jane Ali-Knight, Siobhan Drummond, and Una McMahon-Beattie. Amsterdam: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann. pp. 32–51.

Derrett, Ros (2003). “Festivals & Regional Destinations: How Festivals Demonstrate a Sense of Community & Place.” Rural Society 13:1 (2003): 35–53.

Derrett, Ros (2000). “Can Festivals Brand Community Cultural Development and Cultural Tourism Simultaneously?” Events Beyond 2000: Setting the Agenda: Proceedings of Conference on Event Evaluation, Research and Education Sydney July 2000. Eds. John Allen, Robert Harris, Leo K. Jago, and A. J. Veal. Sydney: Australian Centre for Event Management. pp. 120–129. (7 Dec. 2008)

Dovey, Lindiwe, and Federico Olivieri (2015). “Festivals and the Politics of Space and Mobility: The Tarifa/Cordoba African Film Festival (FCAT) as Nomadic Heterotopia.” Screen 56:1 (2015): 142–148.

Frost, Warwick (2009). “Projecting an Image: Film-Induced Festivals in the American West.” Event Management 12:2 (2009): 95–103.

Gold, John Robert, and Margaret M. Gold (2004). Cities of Culture: Staging International Festivals and the Urban Agenda, 1851-2000. Aldershot: Ashgate Publ.

Grunwell, Sandra, and Inhyuck ‘Steve’ Ha (2008). “Film Festivals: An Empirical Study of Factors for Success.” Event Management 11:4 (2008): 201–210.

Grunwell, Sandra S., Inhyuck ‘Steve’ Ha, and Bonnie S. Martin (2008). “A Comparative Analysis of Attendee Profiles at Two Urban Festivals.” Journal of Convention & Event Tourism 9:1 (2008): 1–14.

Harbord, Janet (2002). “Film Festivals: Media Events and the Spaces of Flow.” Film Cultures. London: Sage. pp. 59–75.

Knee, Adam, and Kong Rithdee (2011). “Tourism and the Landscape of Thai Film Festivals.” Film Festival Yearbook 3: Film Festivals and East Asia. Eds. Dina Iordanova, and Ruby Cheung. St. Andrews: St Andrews Film Studies. pp. 154–165.

Kredell, Brendan (2012). “T.O. Live With Film: The Toronto International Film Festival and Municipal Cultural Policy in Contemporary Toronto.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies | Revue Canadienne d’Études Cinématographiques  21:1 (2012): 21–37.

Ma, Ran (2012). “Celebrating the International, Disremembering Shanghai: The Curious Case of the Shanghai International Film Festival.” Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research  4 (2012): 147–168. <http://www.cultureunbound.ep.liu.se/v4/a08/>. (31. Jan. 2012)

Ooi, Can-Seng, and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (2010). “City Branding and Film Festivals: Re-Evaluating Stakeholder’s Relations.” Place Branding and Public Diplomacy 6:4 (2010): 316–332.

Ooi, Can-Seng, and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen (2009). City Branding and Film Festivals: The Case of Copenhagen. Creative Encounters Working Papers 28.  <http://hdl.handle.net/10398/7939>. (15 Sep. 2010)

Palis, Joseph (2015). “Film Festivals, the Globalization of Images and Post-National Cinephilia.” The Pennsylvania Geographer  53:2 (2015): 35–47.

Prentice, Richard, and Vivien Andersen (2003). “Festivals as Creative Destination.” Annals of Tourism Research 30:1 (2003): 7–30.

Quinn, Bernadette (2006). “Problematising ‘Festival Tourism’: Arts Festivals and Sustainable Development in Ireland.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism 14:3 (2006): 288–306.

Sălcudean, Ileana Nicoleta (2017). “The Transnational Identity of European Film Festival: New Media and Cultural Branding Employed at ‘Transylvania International Film Festival’.” Metacritic Journal for Comparative Studies and Theory  3:1 (2017): 194–213.

Segal, Jérôme (2011). “International Film Festivals in European Cities: Win-Win Situations?” European Arts Festivals: Strengthening Cultural Diversity. Ed. Liana Giorgi. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. pp. 37–45. <http://ec.europa.eu/research/social-sciences/pdf/euro-festival-report_en.pdf> (15 June 2011)

Shapiro, Michael J. (2007). “The New Violent Cartography.” Security Dialogue 38:3 (2007): 291–313.

Stanciu, Elena-Larisa (2014). “Urban Space and Queer Identities: The LGBTQ Film Festival as Heterotopia.” Analize: Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies  3 (2014): 159–177. <http://www.analize-journal.ro/library/files/numarul_3/elena_stanciu.pdf>. (20 Feb. 2015)

Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper, and Carmelo Mazza (2011). “International Film Festivals: For the Benefit of Whom?” Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research 3 (2011): 139–165. <http://www.cultureunbound.ep.liu.se/v3/a12/>. (16 Jun. 2011)

Stringer, Julian (2001). “Global Cities and International Film Festival Economy.” Cinema and the City: Film and Urban Societies in a Global Context. Eds. Mark Shiel, and Tony Fitzmaurice. Oxford: Blackwell. pp. 134–144.

Terry, Neil, Anne Macy, and James K. Owens (2009). “Bikers, Aliens, and Movie Stars: Comparing the Economic Impact of Special Events.” Journal of Business & Economics Research 7:11 (2009): 73–80.

Vogel, Ann (2012). “Film Festivals in Asian Cities.” New Economic Spaces in Asian Cities: From Industrial Restructuring to the Cultural Turn. Eds. Peter W. Daniels, Kong Chong Ho, and Thomas A. Hutton. London; New York: Routledge. pp. 67–86.

Wallin, Mark Rowell, Billy Collins, and John S. Hull (2013). “It’s Not Just About the Film: Festivals, Sustainability, and Small Cities.” Events, Society and Sustainability: Critical and Contemporary Approaches. Eds. Tomas Pernecky, and Michael Lück. Routledge Advances in Event Research Series. London: Routledge. pp. 229–243.

Wong, Cindy Hing-Yuk (2011). Film Festivals: Culture, People, and Power on the Global Screen. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ. Press.

Zielinski, Ger (2012). “On the Production of Heterotopia, and Other Spaces, in and around Lesbian and Gay Film Festivals.” Jump Cut: A Review of Contemporary Media  54 (2012). <http://www.ejumpcut.org/currentissue/gerZelinskiFestivals/index.html>. (7 Oct. 2012)

 

(Last updated: 26 July 2017)