3. Festival Space: Cities, Tourism and Publics

In recent years, research on tourism has contributed significantly to spatial analyses of cultural festivals. There are two perspectives: the “arts and urban development” perspective sees festivals “as a catalyst for urban renewal, attracting tourists and capital investments, enhancing a city’s image and creating new jobs” (Crespi-Valbona/Richards 2007: 106, section 1.3), while the “liveable cities” perspective stresses how communities can appropriate commodified festival events for their own purposes, such as self-identification, and a local sense of community and place. Ros Derrett argues that it is possible to strengthen community cultural development and cultural tourism simultaneously with festivals that share their community’s “culture” with visitors (2000, 2003). At film festivals the connection between the festival’s content and regional distinctiveness of its location, however, is less obvious. Most programs have a strong international character and attract cosmopolitan visitors that want to celebrate and consume world/art cinema. Julian Stringer argues that festivals market both global similarity and conceptual difference, often using local attractions to compete in the contemporary global space economy. Taking the unevenly differentiated power relations between nations and regions into consideration, he regards the international film festival circuit as “a series of diverse, sometimes competing, sometimes cooperating public spheres” (Stringer 2001: 138). In addition, film festivals can be argued to provide counter-public spheres, for culture/aesthetics as well as (leftist) politics (Shapiro 2007; S. Kim 1998, section 9.1).

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Allan, Blaine. “The Festival of Festivals in the Toronto of Torontos.” Queen’s Quarterly, vol. 95, no. 4, 1988, pp. 813–23.

Bissell, William Cunningham. “When the Film Festival Comes to (Down)Town: Transnational Circuits, Tourism, and the Urban Economy of Images.” Global Downtowns, edited by Marina Peterson and Gary W. McDonogh, Univ. of Pennsylvania Press, 2012, pp. 160–85.

Burgess, Diane. “Bridging the Gap: Film Festival Governance, Public Partners and the ‘Vexing’ Problem of Film Distribution.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies | Revue Canadienne d’Études Cinématographiques, vol. 21, no. 1, 2012, pp. 2–20.

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Chan, Felicia. “Film Festivals and Affective Spaces: Singapore’s Majestic Theatre.” Cinergie: Il cinema e le altre arti, no. 6, 2014, pp. 7–14. www.cinergie.it​/​?​p=​4905.

Derrett, Ros. “Can Festivals Brand Community Cultural Development and Cultural Tourism Simultaneously?” Events Beyond 2000: Setting the Agenda: Proceedings of Conference on Event Evaluation, Research and Education Sydney July 2000, edited by John Allen et al., Australian Centre for Event Management, 2000, pp. 120–29.

Derrett, Ros. “Festivals & Regional Destinations: How Festivals Demonstrate a Sense of Community & Place.” Rural Society, vol. 13, no. 1, 2003, pp. 35–53.

Derrett, Ros. “Festivals, Events and the Destination.” Festival and Events Management: An International Arts and Culture Perspective, edited by Ian Yeoman et al., Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2004, pp. 32–51.

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Frost, Warwick. “Projecting an Image: Film-Induced Festivals in the American West.” Event Management, vol. 12, no. 2, 2009, pp. 95–103.

Gold, John Robert, and Margaret M. Gold. Cities of Culture: Staging International Festivals and the Urban Agenda, 1851-2000, Ashgate, 2004.

Grunwell, Sandra S., and Inhyuck “Steve” Ha. “Film Festivals: An Empirical Study of Factors for Success.” Event Management, vol. 11, no. 4, 2008, pp. 201–10. doi:10.3727/152599508785899893.

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Harbord, Janet. “Film Festivals: Media Events and the Spaces of Flow.” Film Cultures, Sage, 2002, pp. 59–75.

Hassink, Robert, and Yong-Sook Lee. “Exploring International Film Festivals from a Co-Evolutionary Perspective: The Cases of Berlin and Busan Compared.” European Planning Studies, vol. 26, no. 5, 2018, pp. 933–49. doi:10.1080/09654313.2018.1446912.

Knee, Adam, and Kong Rithdee. “Tourism and the Landscape of Thai Film Festivals.” Film Festival Yearbook 3: Film Festivals and East Asia, edited by Dina Iordanova and Ruby Cheung, St Andrews Film Studies, 2011, pp. 154–65.

Kredell, Brendan. “T.O. Live With Film: The Toronto International Film Festival and Municipal Cultural Policy in Contemporary Toronto.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies | Revue Canadienne d’Études Cinématographiques, vol. 21, no. 1, 2012, pp. 21–37.

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Ma, Ran. “Celebrating the International, Disremembering Shanghai: The Curious Case of the Shanghai International Film Festival.” Culture Unbound: Journal of Current Cultural Research, vol. 4, 2012, pp. 147–68. doi:10.3384/cu.2000.1525.124147.

Ooi, Can-Seng, and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen. “City Branding and Film Festivals: Re-Evaluating Stakeholder’s Relations.” Place Branding and Public Diplomacy, vol. 6, no. 4, 2010, pp. 316–32. doi:10.1057/pb.2010.30.

Ooi, Can-Seng, and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen. City Branding and Film Festivals: The Case of Copenhagen. 2009. Creative Encounters Working Papers 28. hdl.handle.net​/​10398/​7939.

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Prentice, Richard, and Vivien Andersen. “Festival as Creative Destination.” Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 30, no. 1, 2003, pp. 7–30.

Quinn, Bernadette. “Problematising ‘Festival Tourism’: Arts Festivals and Sustainable Development in Ireland.” Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 14, no. 3, 2006, pp. 288–306.

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Segal, Jérôme. “International Film Festivals in European Cities: Win-Win Situations?” European Arts Festivals: Strengthening Cultural Diversity, edited by Liana Giorgi, Publications Office of the European Union, 2011, pp. 37–45. ec.europa.eu​/​research/​social-​sciences/​pdf/​policy_​reviews/​euro-​festival-​report_​en.pdf.

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Stanciu, Elena-Larisa. “Urban Space and Queer Identities: The LGBTQ Film Festival as Heterotopia.” Analize: Journal of Gender and Feminist Studies, no. 3, 2014, pp. 159–77. www.analize-journal.ro​/​library/​files/​numarul_​3/​elena_​stanciu.pdf.

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(Last updated: 18 January 2021)