1.2 Political Aspects of Film Festivals (History)

Our understanding of today’s film festivals and the contemporary international film festival circuit is tied to our knowledge of festival histories. Geopolitical interests held the first wave of (European) film festivals in a tight grip until the mid-1960s. The articles and books in this subcategory analyze certain parts of festival history in detail, such as the Fascist influence over the Venice Film Festival in the late 1930s (De Valck 2007, section 1.1), the Cold War agenda of the Berlin Film Festival (Fehrenbach 1995) and politically informed (programming) practices in Eastern Europe (Iordanova 2006; Karl 2007; Kötzing 2007a, b; Moine 2007). Although political agendas are discussed as powerful forces driving and shaping festivals, they are also shown to intersect with cultural objectives, economic interests and specific (inter)national historical circumstances. Other studies in this bibliography often also include historical passages or allusions to the formative role national legitimization played in the emergence of film festivals (Kuhlbrodt 2005, section 6.1). Attention has been devoted to the study of festivals as counter-public sphere, in particular for specific communities (see sections 9.1, 9.1.1, and 9.1.2 on queer and women’s film festivals). Finally, the question of political interventions is addressed in studies dealing with specific national cinemas. For example, censorship is central to the discussion of Iranian cinema by Azadeh Farahmand (2002, section 6.4).

 

Archibald, David, and Mitchell Miller (2011). “From Rennes to Toronto: Anatomy of a Boycott.” Screen 52:2 (2011): 274–279.

Barrow, Sarah (2016). “Constraints and Possibilities: Lima Film Festival, Politics and Cultural Formation in Peru.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 132–148.

Batančev, Dragan (2017). “The Belgrade FEST, or What Happened When Peckinpah Met Wajda.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 153–166.

Bláhová, Jindřiška, ed. (2014). Filmove Festivaly | Film Festivals. Spec. Issue of Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 26:1. Prague.

Bláhová, Jindřiška (2014). “Filmove Festivaly.” Filmove Festivaly | Film Festivals. Spec. Issue of Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 26:1. Ed. Jindřiška Bláhová. Prague. pp. 5–7.

Bruch, Anne (2017). “‘Just think of the possibilities of dissemination…’: The Film Festival Policy of the European Institutions in the 1950s and 1960s.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 79–90.

Câmara, Regina (2017). “From Karlovy Vary to Cannes: Brazilian Cinema Novo at European Film Festivals in the 1960s.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 63–77.

Cazzaro, Davide, and Darcy Paquet (2015). BIFF x BIFF. Foreword by Lee Chang-dong. Busan: Busan International Film Festival.

Cheung, Ruby (2016). “Ever-Changing Readjustments: The Political Economy of the Hong Kong International Film Festival (HKIFF).” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 59–75.

Di Chiara, Francesco, and Valentina Re (2011). “Film Festival/Film History: The Impact of Film Festivals on Cinema Historiography. Il cinema ritrovato and beyond.” Cinémas: Revue d’études cinématographiques | Cinémas: Journal of Film Studies  21:2-3 (2011): 131–151.

Djagalov, Rossen, and Masha Salazkina (2016). “Tashkent ’68: A Cinematic Contact Zone.” Slavic Review  75:2 (2016): 279–298.

Ebbrecht-Hartmann, Tobias (2017). “Socialist Competition or Window to the World? East German Student Films at International Festivals in the Context of the Cold War.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 15–29.

Fehrenbach, Heidi (1995). “Mass Culture and Cold War Politics: The Berlin Film Festival of the 1950s.” Cinema in Democratizing Germany: Reconstructing National Identity after Hitler. Chapel Hill/London: Univ. of North Carolina Press. pp. 234–259.

Gallinari, Pauline (2007). “L’URSS au festival de Cannes 1946-1958: un enjeu des relations franco-soviétiques à l’heure de la « guerre froide ».” 1895: Revue de l’Association Française de Recherche sur l’Histoire du Cinéma 51 (2007): 23–43.

Gimello-Mesplomb, Frédéric (2014). Objectif 49: Cocteau et la nouvelle avant-garde. Paris: Séguier.

Gimello-Mesplomb, Frédéric, and Loredana Latil (2003). “Une politique de cinéma: La sélection française pour Cannes.” Protée  31:2 (2003): 17–28.

Gourmelen, Arnaud, and Ralph Eue (2010). “Die Stunde Null der Cinephilie: Das Festival du Film Maudit (1949) und das Rendez-Vous de Biarritz (1950).” Recherche Film und Fernsehen 7+8 (2010): 58–71.

Gregor, Ulrich (2008). “Filmfestival-Chronik des Jahres 1968: Berlin, Cannes, Venedig, Knokke.” Recherche Film und Fernsehen  3 (2008): 36–38.

Haase, Jürgen, ed. (2010). Zwischen uns die Mauer: DEFA-Filme auf der Berlinale. Berlin: Berlin Edition im Be.bra Verlag.

Hagener, Malte (2014). “Institutions of Film Culture: Festivals and Archives as Network Nodes.” The Emergence of Film Culture: Knowledge Production, Institution Building, and the Fate of the Avant-garde in Europe, 1919-1945. Ed. Malte Hagener. New York: Berghahn. pp. 283–305.

Iordanova, Dina (2006). “Showdown of the Festivals: Clashing Entrepreneurships and Post-Communist Management of Culture.” Film International 4:5 (2006): 25–37.

Jelenković, Dunja (2016). “Politics, Ideology, and Programming Practices: How the Yugoslav Documentary and Short Film Festival Abandoned the Idea of Yugoslavia.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 76–92.

Jelenković, Dunja (2017). “The Film Festival as an Arena for Political Debate: The Yugoslav Black Wave in Belgrade and Oberhausen.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 47–61.

Jiřiště, Jakub (2014). “Iluzorní obrodný proces karlovarského filmového festivalu: XVI. Mezinárodní festival Karlovy Vary (1968) v reflexi dobového tisku.” [The Illusive Revival Process of the Karlovy Vary Film Festival. A Reflection on the 16th Karlovy Vary Film Festival (1968) in the Period Press.]  Filmove Festivaly | Film Festivals. Spec. Issue of Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 26:1. Ed. Jindřiška Bláhová. Prague. pp. 9–37.

Karl, Lars (2007). “Zwischen politischem Ritual und kulturellem Dialog: Die Moskauer Internationalen Filmfestspiele im Kalten Krieg 1959-1971.” Leinwand zwischen Tauwetter und Frost: Der osteuropäische Spiel- und Dokumentarfilm im Kalten Krieg. Ed. Lars Karl. Berlin: Metropol. pp. 279–298.

Kötzing, Andreas (2007). “Zeigen oder nicht zeigen? Das ‘Prinzip der Selbstnominierung’ sozialistischer Filme auf der Leipziger Dokumentarfilmwoche.” Leinwand zwischen Tauwetter und Frost: Der osteuropäische Spiel- und Dokumentarfilm im Kalten Krieg. Ed. Lars Karl. Berlin: Metropol. pp. 299–316.

Kötzing, Andreas (2007). “Filmfestivals als historische Quelle.” Deutschland Archiv: Zeitschrift für das vereinigte Deutschland 40:4 (2007): 693–699.

Kötzing, Andreas (2013). Kultur- und Filmpolitik im Kalten Krieg: Die Filmfestivals von Leipzig und Oberhausen in gesamtdeutscher Perspektive, 1954-1972. Göttingen: Wallstein.

Kötzing, Andreas (2013). “Provozierte Konflikte: Der Club der Filmschaffenden und die Beteiligung der DEFA an der Mannheimer Filmwoche 1959/60.” DEFA international: Grenzüberschreitende Filmbeziehungen vor und nach dem Mauerbau. Eds. Michael Wedel, Barton Byg, Andy Räder, Skyler Arndt-Briggs, and Evan Torner. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. pp. 369–384.

Kötzing, Andreas (2017). “Cultural and Film Policy in the Cold War: The Film Festivals of Oberhausen and Leipzig and German-German Relations.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 31–45.

Kötzing, Andreas, and Caroline Moine, eds. (2017). Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht.

Kötzing, Andreas, and Caroline Moine (2017). “Introduction.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 7–12.

Lee, Sangjoon (2014). “The Emergence of the Asian Film Festival: Cold War Asia and Japan’s Reentrance to the Regional Film Industry in the 1950s.” The Oxford Handbook of Japanese Cinema. Ed. Daisuke Miyao. Oxford, New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 226–244.

Loist, Skadi (2014). “Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts. Film Festivals during the Cold War: 09.05.2014-10.05.2014, Leipzig.” H-Soz-Kult Sep. 11, 2014. <http://hsozkult.geschichte.hu-berlin.de/tagungsberichte/id=5533>. (11 Sep. 2014)

Ma, Ran (2016). “A Genealogy of Film Festivals in the People’s Republic of China: ‘Film Weeks’ during the ‘Seventeen Years’ (1949–1966).” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 40–58.

Manetti, Daniela (2013). “The Birth and Early Years of a Mega Event: The Venice International Film Festival (1932-1939).” Citta e Storia  8:1 (2013): 107–136.

Moine, Caroline (2005). “‘Le fascisme ordinaire’ de Mikhaïl Romm au festival de Leipzig (1965).” Caméra politique: Cinéma et stalinisme. Ed. Kristian Feigelson. Theorem. 8. Paris: Presse Sorbonne nouvelle. pp. 228–239.

Moine, Caroline (2007). “Blicke über den Eisernen Vorhang: Die internationalen Filmfestivals im Kalten Krieg 1945–1968.” Leinwand zwischen Tauwetter und Frost: Der osteuropäische Spiel- und Dokumentarfilm im Kalten Krieg. Ed. Lars Karl. Berlin: Metropol. pp. 255–278.

Moine, Caroline (2009). “Une Allemagne malgré tout? Le festival international du film documentaire de Leipzig, 1955-1990.” Une Europe malgré tout, 1945-1990: Contacts et réseaux culturels, intellectuels et scientifiques entre Européens dans la guerre froide | Cultural, lntellectual and Scientific Contacts and Networks among Europeans during the Cold War | Kulturelle, intellektuelle und wissenschaftliche Kontakte und Netze unter Europäern im Kalten Kriege. Eds. Antoine Fleury, and Lubor Jílek. Bruxelles; Berlin; Frankfurt/M: Peter Lang. pp. 297–316.

Moine, Caroline (2011). “La FIAPF, une Fédération de Producteurs au coeur des relations internationales après 1945.” [“The FIAPF, a Federation of Film Producers at the Heart of International Relations after 1945.”] Les producteurs: Enjeux créatifs, enjeux financiers. Eds. Laurent Creton, Yannick Dehée, Sébastien Layerle, and Caroline Moine. Paris: Nouveau monde éditions. pp. 249–266.

Moine, Caroline (2012). “Festivals de cinéma et politiques culturelles dans l’Europe de la guerre froide: diversité des enjeux et des acteurs.” [“Film festivals and cultural policies in Europe during the Cold War: diversity of issues and actors.”]. Territoires contemporains  3 (2012). <http://tristan.u-bourgogne.fr/CGC/publications/Festivals_societes/C_Moine.html>. (20. Aug. 2013)

Moine, Caroline (2014). “Z Cannes přes Karlovy Vary do Západního Berlína a Benátek: mezinárodní filmové festivaly v bouřlivém roce 1968.” [From Karlovy Vary to West Berlin and Venice. International Film Festivals in the Turbulent Year of 1968]  Filmove Festivaly | Film Festivals. Spec. Issue of Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 26:1. Ed. Jindřiška Bláhová. Prague. pp. 39–48.

Moine, Caroline (2014). Cinéma et guerre froide: Histoire du festival de films documentaires de Leipzig (1955-1990). Paris: Publications Sorbonne.

Odabasi, Eren (2016). “Gezici Festival: Multiple Identities of a Traveling Film Festival in Turkey.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 149–163.

Ostrowska, Dorota (2014). “Polish Films at the Venice and Cannes Film Festivals: The 1940s, 1950s and 1960s.” Polish Cinema in a Transnational Context. Eds. Ewa Mazierska, and Michael Goddard. Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. pp. 77–94.

Ostrowska, Dorota (2016). “Making Film History at the Cannes Film Festivals.” Film Festivals: History, Theory, Method, Practice. Eds. Marijke de Valck, Brendan Kredell, and Skadi Loist. London, New York: Routledge. pp. 18–33.

Papadimitriou, Lydia (2016). “The Hindered Drive toward Internationalization: Thessaloniki (International) Film Festival.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 93–111.

Papadimitriou, Lydia, and Jeffrey Ruoff, eds. (2016). Film Festivals: Origins and Trajectories. Spec. Issue of New Review of Film and Television Studies 14:1.

Papadimitriou, Lydia, and Jeffrey Ruoff (2016). “Film Festivals: Origins and Trajectories.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 1–4.

Peirano, María Paz (2016). “Pursuing, Resembling, and Contesting the Global: The Emergence of Chilean Film Festivals.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 112–131.

Pisu, Stefano (2008). “L’Unione Sovietica alla Mostra internazionale d’arte cinematografica di Venezia (1932-1953).” [“The Soviet Union at the Venice International Film Festival (1932-1953).”] PhD Thesis. Cagliari, Italy: Universita’ degli Studi di Cagliari. (2008). <http://veprints.unica.it/67/>. (1 Dec. 2011)

Pisu, Stefano (2013). Stalin a Venezia: L’Urss alla Mostra del cinema fra diplomazia culturale e scontro ideologico (1932-1953). Preface by Pierre Sorlin. Soveria Mannelli: Rubbettino.

Pisu, Stefano (2013). “Les festivals internationaux de cinéma dans l’URSS du second stalinisme, ou brèves histoires de contre-festivals ‘fantômes’.” Une histoire des festivals: XXe-XXIe siècle. Eds. Anaïs Fléchet, Pascale Gœtschel, Patricia Hidiroglou, Sophie Jacotot, Caroline Moine, and Julie Verlaine. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne. pp. 55–62.

Pisu, Stefano (2013). “The USSR and East-Central European Countries at the Venice International Film Festival (1946–1953).” Iluminace: časopis pro teorii, historii a estetiku filmu = Journal for Film Theory, History, and Aesthetics 25:3 (2013): 51–63.

Pisu, Stefano (2014). “Prestigio de la nación vs mirada deconstruyente: las imágenes de Italia en el Festival Internacional de Cine de Venecia desde el final de la Segunda Guerra Mundia hasta el “milagro económico [Nation’s Prestige vs Deconstructive Gaze: The Images of Italy since the End of the Second World War until the “Economic Miracle”].” Festivales cinematográficos [Film Festivals]. Spec. Issue of Secuencias: Revista de Historia del Cine 39. Ed. Aida Vallejo. Madrid: MAIA Ediciones. pp. 43–64.

Pisu, Stefano (2017). “Transnational Mobilization and Domestic Political Exploitation: The 1977 Venice Biennale of Dissent.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 123–140.

Rae, Ian, and Jessica Thom (2016). “The Rise and Fall of the Stratford International Film Festival.” Canadian Journal of Film Studies | Revue Canadienne d’Études Cinématographiques  25:1 (2016): 67–87.

Ribas, Daniel (2012). “Anatomia de um Festival / Anatomy of a Festival Curtas Vila do Conde (1993-2012).” Puro Cinema: Curtas Vila do Conde 20 anos depois = Pure Cinema: Curtas Vila de Conde 20 years after. Eds. Daniel Ribas, and Mario Micaelo. Vila do Conde: Curtas Metragens, CRL. pp. 5–13.

Stassinopoulou, Maria A. (2017). “Scenes from A Marriage: The Thessaloniki Film Festival Between Mainstream and Art Cinema from its Beginnings to the 1970s.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 109–122.

Stein, Gabby (1997). “Censorship and the Film Festival.” Cinema Papers no. 118 (July 1997): 58–59.

Stevens, Kirsten (2016). “Enthusiastic Amateurs: Australia’s Film Societies and the Birth of Audience-Driven Film Festivals in Post-War Melbourne.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 22–39.

Stone, Marla (1999). “Challenging Cultural Categories: The Transformation of the Venice Biennale Under Fascism.” Journal of Modern Italian Studies  4:2 (1999): 184–208.

Taillibert, Christel (2014). “Festivales y patrimonio cinematográfico en la era digital: La situación francesa. [Film Festivals and Film Heritage in the Digital Era – The French Situation].” Festivales cinematográficos [Film Festivals]. Spec. Issue of Secuencias: Revista de Historia del Cine 39. Ed. Aida Vallejo. Madrid: MAIA Ediciones. pp. 83–99.

Taillibert, Christel, and John Wäfler (2016). “Groundwork for a (Pre)History of Film Festivals.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 5–21.

van Hemert, Tess (2016). “BIFF to BAPFF: Considering ‘Festival Memory’ in the Face of Change and Innovation.” New Review of Film and Television Studies  14:1 (2016): 164–180.

Wäfler, John (2013). “Changing Festival Definitions: A Brief History of the Fribourg International Film Festival in Switzerland.” Une histoire des festivals: XXe-XXIe siècle. Eds. Anaïs Fléchet, Pascale Gœtschel, Patricia Hidiroglou, Sophie Jacotot, Caroline Moine, and Julie Verlaine. Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne. pp. 99–107.

Wäfler, John (2017). “The Surveillance of Film Festivals in Switzerland: The Case of Locarno International Film Festival.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 141–152.

Winkler, Daniel (2007). “Eine Stimme für den jungen Autorenfilm: Geschichte und Programmatik des Festival Internazionale del Film di Locarno.” [“A voice for the young auteur film: History and program of the Festival Internazionale del Film di Locarno.”] Zibaldone: Zeitschrift für italienische Kultur der Gegenwart  43 (2007): 123–134.

Yurtaeva, Yulia (2017). “‘Jetzt ‘festivalt’ auch die Television’: Television Festivals in the 1960s.” Cultural Transfer and Political Conflicts: Film Festivals in the Cold War. Eds. Andreas Kötzing, and Caroline Moine. Göttingen: Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 91–106.

 

(Last updated: 26 July 2017)