5.1 Markets and Funds

The writings in this subcategory look at film festival markets and funds from a predominantly cultural perspective. Cultural diversity (instead of economic productivity and efficiency) is therefore at the heart of these reflections and analyses of the business side of festivals. Most authors display a concern for an inclusive cinema culture: stretching from first world national cinemas to cinema in developing countries, keeping standards of artistic quality high, and offering space for aesthetic experiments, adversary views or lifestyles, and marginal voices. Consequently, the hype and hustle surrounding the buying-and-selling at festivals, though considered inevitable, is more often than not discussed with a critical eye for its potentially corrupting effects of the festival ideal of fostering “true variety.” Of particular interest are those studies that deal with film festivals’ active role as producer of world cinema through programming and funding (Steinhart 2006).


Abis, Mario. “I festival come impresa.” [“Festivals as business.”]. 8 1/2 – Numeri, visioni e prospettive del cinema italiano, no. 2, 2013, p. 13.

Benghozi, Pierre-Jean, and Claire Nénert. “Création de Valeur Artistique ou Économique: Festival International du Film de Cannes au Marché du Film.” [Creation of Artistic or Economic Value: Cannes International Film Festival at the Film Market]. Recherche et Applications en Marketing, vol. 10, no. 4, 1995, pp. 65–76.

Bento Ribeiro, Ana. “Cinelink, Sarajevo: interactions d’un marché régional aux marges de l’Europe.” [Cinelink, Sarajevo: interactions of a regional market at the margins of Europe]. Entrelacs, no. 14, 2018, doi:10.4000/entrelacs.4246.

Berra, John. “Selective Exhibition: The Sundance Film Festival and Its Significance to the Independent Sector.” Declarations of Independence: American Cinema and the Partiality of Independent Production, intellect, 2008, pp. 143–60.

Binimelis Adell, Mar. La geopolítica de las coproducciones hispanoamericanas: Un análisis a través de su presencia en los festivales de cine clase A (1997-2007) [The geopolitics of Spanish-American co-productions: An analysis through their presence in class A film festivals], PhD Thesis, Universidad Rovira y Virgili, 2011, www.tdx.cat​/​bitstream/​handle/​10803/​51762/​TESIS_​DEF_​COMPLETA.pdf.

Broe, Dennis. “The Film Festival as a Site of Resistance: Pro or Cannes.” Situations: Project of the Radical Imagination, vol. 4, no. 1, 2011, pp. 33–52. radicalimagination.institute/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/broe-2011.pdf.

Burgess, Diane. “Capturing Film Festival Buzz: The Methodological Dilemma of Measuring Symbolic Value.” NECSUS: European Journal of Media Studies, vol. 9, no. 2, 2020, pp. 225–47. doi:10.25969/mediarep/15318.

Campos, Minerva. “El circuito de financiación de los cines latinoamericanos | Le circuit de financement des cinémas latino-américains: [The circuit of funding for Latin American cinema].” En Cinémas d’Amérique Latine, no. 20, 2012, pp. 172–80.

Campos, Minerva. “Film (Co)Production in Latin America and European Festivals: The Cases of Production Companies Fabula & Control Z.” Dispositive der Kulturfinanzierung, edited by Steffen Höhne et al., 1., Aufl, transcript, 2015, pp. 95–108. 1.

Campos, Minerva. “La América Latina de ‘Cine en Construcción’: Implicaciones del apoyo económico de los festivales internacionales.” [The Latin American ‘Films in Progress’: Implications of financial support from international festivals.]. Archivos de la filmoteca: Revista de estudios históricos sobre la imagen, no. 71, 2013, pp. 13–26. www.archivosdelafilmoteca.com​/​index.php/​archivos/​article/​view/​392.

Campos, Minerva. “Reconfiguración de flujos en el circuito internacional de festivales de cine: El programa Cine en Construcción.” [Reconfiguring flows in the international film festival circuit: The Films in Progress program]. Secuencias: Revista de Historia del Cine, no. 35, 2012, dialnet.unirioja.es​/​servlet/​articulo​?​codigo=​4141027.

Cheung, Ruby. “East Asian Film Festivals: Film Markets.” Film Festival Yearbook 3: Film Festivals and East Asia, edited by Dina Iordanova and Ruby Cheung, St Andrews Film Studies, 2011, pp. 40–61.

Chin, Daryl. “Festivals, Markets, Critics: Notes on the State of the Art Film.” Performing Arts Journal, vol. 19, no. 1, 1997, pp. 61–75.

Chin, Daryl, and Larry Qualls. “Open Circuits, Closed Markets: Festivals and Expositions of Film and Video.” Performing Arts Journal, vol. 23, no. 1, 2001, pp. 33–47.

Chin, Daryl, and Larry Qualls. “To Market, to Market.” Performing Arts Journal, vol. 20, no. 1, 1998, pp. 38–43.

Creton, Laurent. Cinéma et Marché, Armand Colin/Masson, 1997.

de Valck, Marijke. “Sites of Initiation: Film Training Programs at Film Festivals.” The Education of the Filmmaker in Europe, Australia, and Asia, edited by Mette Hjort, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, pp. 127–45.

de Valck, Marijke. “Supporting Art Cinema at a Time of Commercialization: Principles and Practices, the Case of the International Film Festival Rotterdam.” Poetics, no. 42, 2014, pp. 40–59. doi:10.1016/j.poetic.2013.11.004.

Falicov, Tamara. “‘Cine en Construcción’/‘Films in Progress’: How Spanish and Latin American Film-Makers Negotiate the Construction of a Globalized Art-House Aesthetic.” Transnational Cinemas, vol. 4, no. 2, 2013, pp. 253–71. doi:10.1386/trac.4.2.253_1.

Falicov, Tamara. “Film Funding Opportunities for Latin American Filmmakers: A Case for Further North-South Collaboration in Training and Film Festival Initiatives.” A Companion to Latin American Cinema, edited by Maria M. Delgado et al., Wiley Blackwell, 2017, pp. 85–98.

Falicov, Tamara. “Migrating from South to North: The Role of Film Festivals in Funding and Shaping Global South Film and Video.” Locating Migrating Media, edited by Greg Elmer et al., Lexington Books, 2010, pp. 3–21.

Falicov, Tamara. “The ‘Festival Film’: Film Festival Funds as Cultural Intermediaries.” Film Festivals: History, Theory, Method, Practice, edited by Marijke de Valck et al., Routledge, 2016, pp. 209–29.

Fallaux, Emile; Halasa, Malu; Press, Nupu, editors. True Variety: Funding the Art of World Cinema, International Film Festival Rotterdam, 2003.

Havens, Timothy. “Inventing Universal Television: Restricted Access, Promotional Extravagance, and the Distribution of Value at Global Television Markets.” Negotiating Values in the Creative Industries: Fairs, Festivals and Competitive Events, edited by Brian Moeran and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 145–68.

Herrschner, Irina, and Kirsten Stevens. “Trans-National Encounters at the Berlinale: A Look from the Inside.” Transnational German Cinema: Encountering Germany Through Film and Events, edited by Irina Herrschner et al., Springer, 2021, 3-23.

Lauer, Jean Anne. “From ‘Expresión en Corto’ to Guanajuato International Film Festival: The Rise of Regional Support for Mexican Cinema in National and International Contexts.” Transnational Cinemas, vol. 4, no. 2, 2013, pp. 273–93. doi:10.1386/trac.4.2.273_1.

Lecler, Romain. “La montée des marchés à Cannes: Le circuit des échanges audiovisuels internationaux, sa chronologie et ses trajets professionnels” [“[How Markets Climbed the Steps in Cannes. On the International TV and Film Trade, its Circuit, its Chronology and its Professional Itineraries]”]. Réseaux, vol. 34, 6 (#200), 2016, pp. 209–42. doi:10.3917/res.200.0209.

Lecler, Romain. “Nouvelles vagues: Le marché-festival de Cannes ou la fabrique française d’un universel cinématographique.” [New Waves: The Festival-market of Cannes, or the French Making of a Cinematographic Universal]. Actes De La Recherche En Sciences Sociales, 206-207, 2015, pp. 14–33. doi:10.3917/arss.206.0014.

Mazars, Pierre; Hespert, Aude; Laurichesse, Hélène. “Les festivals et les marchés du film.” [Festivals and film markets]. Entrelacs, no. 14, 2018, doi:10.4000/entrelacs.4320.

Mezias, Stephen; Strandgaard Pedersen, Jesper; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Svejenova, Silviya; Mazza, Carmelo. Transforming Film Product Identities: The Status Effects of European Premier Film Festivals, 1996–2005.” Negotiating Values in the Creative Industries: Fairs, Festivals and Competitive Events, edited by Brian Moeran and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 169–96.

Ostrowska, Dorota. “International Film Festivals as Producers of World Cinema.” Cinéma & Cie: International Film Studies Journal, vol. 10, 14-15, 2010, pp. 145–50. Qualls, Larry, and Daryl Chin. “Three Blind Mice: Fairs, Festivals, Expositions.” Performing Arts Journal, no. 78, 2004, pp. 62–71.

Paillard, Jérôme, and Hélène Laurichesse. “Le marché du film du Festival de Cannes.” [The Cannes Festival Film Market]. Entrelacs, no. 14, 2018, doi:10.4000/entrelacs.4325.

Pan, Sevara. “A Niche for Creativity: An Interview with Thierry Garrel, Director of the French Department of Documentary Film at TV ARTE (1991-2008).” Documentary Film Festivals Vol. 2: Changes, Challenges, Professional Perspectives, edited by Aida Vallejo and Ezra Winton, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, pp. 191–99.

Perry, Simon. “Cannes, Festivals and the Movie Business.” Sight & Sound, vol. 50, no. 4, 1981, pp. 226–32.

Perspex (2006): The First Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival in Taipei Celebrates a New Form of Social Activism. In: Inter-Asia Cultural Stud 7 (3), S. 527–532.

Qualls, Larry, and Daryl Chin. “Three Blind Mice: Fairs, Festivals, Expositions.” Performing Arts Journal, no. 78, 2004, pp. 62–71.

Rhyne, Ragan. “Queer Capital, Queer Culture: Gay and Lesbian Film Festivals in the 1990s.” International Film Festivals: Contemporary Cultures and History Beyond Venice and Cannes, edited by Tricia Jenkins, I.B.Tauris, 2018, pp. 153–78.

Ross, Miriam. “The Film Festival as Producer: Latin American films and Rotterdam’s Hubert Bals Fund.” Screen, vol. 52, no. 2, 2011, pp. 261–67. doi:10.1093/screen/hjr014.

Rueda, Amanda. “Festival et marché: le rôle du festival Cinélatino de Toulouse dans l’industrie du « cinéma d’auteur ».” [Festival and markets: the role of the Toulouse Cinélatino Festival in the “auteur cinema” industry]. Entrelacs, no. 14, 2018, doi:10.4000/entrelacs.4265.

Scharres, Barbara. “Still Number One? The Cannes International Film Festival and Market.” The Independent: Film and Video Monthly, vol. 13, no. 8, 1990, pp. 16–19.

Scherrer, Jean-Baptiste. “Le Festival et le Marché international du film d’animation d’Annecy, un exemple de réconciliation entre la loi du marché et l’intervention institutionnelle: [The Annecy International Animation Film Festival and its Market (Mifa), an example of reconciliation between the law of the market and institutional intervention].” Entrelacs, no. 14, 2018, doi:10.4000/entrelacs.4290.

Shaw, Deborah. “Fonds de financement européens et cinéma latino-américain: Altérisation et cinéphilie bourgeoise dans La teta asustada de Claudia Llosa.” Transl. Brigitte Rollet. Diogène, no. 245, 2014, pp. 125–41. doi:10.3917/dio.245.0125.

Slováková, Andrea. “Connecting Festivals, Distributing Films: An Interview with Diana Tabakov, Acquisitions Manager at Doc Alliance Films VOD Platform.” Documentary Film Festivals Vol. 2: Changes, Challenges, Professional Perspectives, edited by Aida Vallejo and Ezra Winton, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, pp. 201–10.

Steinhart, Daniel. “Fostering International Cinema: The Rotterdam Film Festival, CineMart, and the Hubert Bals Fund.” Mediascape, no. 2, 2006, pp. 1–13. www.tft.ucla.edu​/​mediascape/​Spring06_​FosteringInternationalCinema.pdf.

Triana Toribio, Nuria. “Building Latin American Cinema in Europe: Cine en Construcción/Cinéma en construction.” Contemporary Hispanic Cinema: Interrogating the Transnational in Spanish and Latin American Film, edited by Stephanie Dennison, Tamesis Books, 2013, pp. 89–112.

Vallejo, Aida. “Documentary Filmmakers in the Circuit: A Festival Career from Czech Dream to Czech Peace.” Defining Independent Documentaries: Case Studies in the Post-1990 Context, edited by Camille Deprez and Judith Pernin, Edinburgh University Press, 2015.

Vallejo, Aida. “El Efecto Dominó: Nuevas Estrategias De Financiación Del Documental Creativo Ante La Crisis De La Televisión Pública En Europa.” [The Domino Effect. New Funding Strategies for Creative Documentary in Response to the Crisis of Public Television in Europe]. Crisis y políticas. La radiotelevisión pública en el punto de mira: Actas del II Congreso Internacional de comunicación audiovisual y publicidad, Bilboa 4 y 5 de octubre de 2012, edited by Miguel Ángel Casado et al., Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco, 2013, pp. 99–109.

Vallejo, Aida. “L’impact Économique Des Festivals De Cinéma: Entre La Communauté Cinéphile Et L’industrie Audiovisuelle.” [The Economic Impact of Film Festivals: Between the Cinephile Community and the Audiovisual Industry]. Les cahiers de Champs Visuels, 14/15, 2017, pp. 61–98.

Vinuela, Ana. “Le marché de la coproduction de la Berlinale dans l’univers du cinéma du monde.” [The Berlinale co-production market within global cinema]. Entrelacs, no. 14, 2018, pp. 1–11. doi:10.4000/entrelacs.4332.

Wiedemann, Thomas, and Tanja C. Krainhöfer. “The Berlin International Film Festival: A Powerful Springboard and Gatekeeping Mechanism for Domestic Filmmaking.” Communications, vol. 45, no. 4, 2020, pp. 389–413. doi:10.1515/commun-2019-2052.

Wolf, Reinhard W. “Film Festivals in Cinema Programmes of Major Cities: A New Global Business Model.” shortfilm.de: Das KurzfilmMagazin [shortfilm.de], 19 June 2018, www.shortfilm.de​/​en/​filmfestivals-​im-​kinoprogramm-​grosser-​staedte-​ein-​neues-​globales-​geschaeftsmodell/​.

Wolf, Reinhard W. “Filmfestivals im Kinoprogramm großer Städte: Ein neues globales Geschäftsmodell.” shortfilm.de: Das KurzfilmMagazin [shortfilm.de], 19 June 2018, www.shortfilm.de​/​filmfestivals-​im-​kinoprogramm-​grosser-​staedte-​ein-​neues-​globales-​geschaeftsmodell/​.

Wolf, Reinhard W. “Laurels for Greenbacks: Making Money with Short Films in a Thriving Festival Scene.” shortfilm.de: Das KurzfilmMagazin [shortfilm.de], 11 Dec. 2017, www.shortfilm.de​/​en/​lorbeeren-​fuer-​kohle-​in-​einer-​bluehenden-​festivallandschaft-​mit-​kurzfilmen-​geld-​verdienen/​.

Wolf, Reinhard W. “Lorbeeren für Kohle: In einer blühenden Festivallandschaft mit Kurzfilmen Geld verdienen.” shortfilm.de: Das KurzfilmMagazin [shortfilm.de], 11 Dec. 2017, www.shortfilm.de​/​lorbeeren-​fuer-​kohle-​in-​einer-​bluehenden-​festivallandschaft-​mit-​kurzfilmen-​geld-​verdienen/​.

Xu, Min and Stijn Reijnders. “Getting close to the media world? On the attraction of encountering film industry professionals at Shanghai International Film Festival.” Participations: Journal of Audience & Reception Studies, vol. 15, no. 1, 2018, pp. 84–104.

Zachar, Gerald and Michael Paul. “Evidencing the Economics of Film Festival Funding: Do Government Subsidies Help?” Handbook of State Aid for Film: Finance, Industries and Regulation, edited by Paul Clemens Murschetz et al., Springer International, 2018, pp. 481–505.

Zachar, Gerald and Michael Paul. Filmfestivalreport Österreich: Zur Situation der österreichischen Filmfestivals: Finanzierung, Effekte & strategische Aussichten. im Auftrag des Forums österreichischer Filmfestivals, 2016, film-festivals.at​/​media/​presse/​Filmfestivalreport_​Oesterrei.pdf.


(Last updated: 06 March 2022)