5.1 Markets and Funds

The writings in this subcategory look at film festival markets and funds from a predominantly cultural perspective. Cultural diversity (instead of economic productivity and efficiency) is therefore at the heart of these reflections and analyses of the business side of festivals. Most authors display a concern for an inclusive cinema culture: stretching from first world national cinemas to cinema in developing countries, keeping standards of artistic quality high, and offering space for aesthetic experiments, adversary views or lifestyles, and marginal voices. Consequently, the hype and hustle surrounding the buying-and-selling at festivals, though considered inevitable, is more often than not discussed with a critical eye for its potentially corrupting effects of the festival ideal of fostering “true variety.” Of particular interest are those studies that deal with film festivals’ active role as producer of world cinema through programming and funding (Steinhart 2006).


Abis, Mario. 2013. “I Festival Come Impresa.” [“Festivals as business.”]. 8 1/2 – Numeri, visioni e prospettive del cinema italiano (2): 13.

Benghozi, Pierre-Jean, and Claire Nénert. 1995. “Création de Valeur Artistique ou Économique: Festival International du Film de Cannes au Marché du Film.” [Creation of Artistic or Economic Value: Cannes International Film Festival at the Film Market]. Recherche et Applications en Marketing 10 (4): 65–76.

Bento Ribeiro, Ana. 2018. “Cinelink, Sarajevo: Interactions D’un Marché Régional Aux Marges De L’europe.” [Cinelink, Sarajevo: interactions of a regional market at the margins of Europe]. entrelacs, no. 14. https://doi.org/10.4000/entrelacs.4246.

Berra, John. 2008. “Selective Exhibition: The Sundance Film Festival and Its Significance to the Independent Sector.” In Declarations of Independence: American Cinema and the Partiality of Independent Production, 143–60. Bristol, UK, Chicago: intellect.

Binimelis Adell, Mar. 2011. “La geopolítica de las coproducciones hispanoamericanas: Un análisis a través de su presencia en los festivales de cine clase A (1997-2007).” [The geopolitics of Spanish-American co-productions: An analysis through their presence in class A film festivals]. PhD Thesis, Departamento de Estudios de la Comunicación, Universidad Rovira y Virgili. Accessed April 14, 2020. http://www.tdx.cat/bitstream/handle/10803/51762/TESIS_DEF_COMPLETA.pdf.

Broe, Dennis. 2011. “The Film Festival as a Site of Resistance: Pro or Cannes.” Situations: Project of the Radical Imagination 4 (1): 33–52. https://radicalimagination.institute/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/broe-2011.pdf. Accessed July 02, 2021.

Burgess, Diane. 2020. “Capturing Film Festival Buzz: The Methodological Dilemma of Measuring Symbolic Value.” NECSUS 9 (2): 225–47. https://doi.org/10.25969/mediarep/15318.

Calderón Acero, Camilo Andrés. 2020. “Industria Cinematográfica Y Exhibición En Colombia: Apuntes Para Una Oferta Alternativa.” [Film Industry and Exhibition in Colombia: Notes for an Alternative Exhibition]. Mediaciones 16 (24): 8–21. https://doi.org/10.26620/uniminuto.mediaciones.16.24.2020.8-21.

Campos, Minerva. 2012. “El circuito de financiación de los cines latinoamericanos | Le circuit de financement des cinémas latino-américains: [The circuit of funding for Latin American cinema].” En Cinémas d’Amérique Latine (20): 172–80.

Campos, Minerva. 2012. “Reconfiguración de flujos en el circuito internacional de festivales de cine: El programa Cine en Construcción.” [Reconfiguring flows in the international film festival circuit: The Films in Progress program]. Secuencias: Revista de Historia del Cine (35). http://dialnet.unirioja.es/servlet/articulo?codigo=4141027. Accessed April 14, 2020.

Campos, Minerva. 2013. “La América Latina de ‘Cine en Construcción’: Implicaciones del apoyo económico de los festivales internacionales.” [The Latin American ‘Films in Progress’: Implications of financial support from international festivals.]. Archivos de la filmoteca (71): 13–26. http://www.archivosdelafilmoteca.com/index.php/archivos/article/view/392. Accessed April 14, 2020.

Campos, Minerva. 2015. “Film (Co)Production in Latin America and European Festivals: The Cases of Production Companies Fabula & Control Z.” In “Dispositive der Kulturfinanzierung.” edited by Steffen Höhne, Verena Teissl, and Martin Tröndle. Special issue, Zeitschrift für Kulturmanagement: Kunst, Politik, Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft 1. (1): 95–108.

Cheung, Ruby. 2011. “East Asian Film Festivals: Film Markets.” In Film Festival Yearbook 3: Film Festivals and East Asia, edited by Dina Iordanova and Ruby Cheung, 40–61. St. Andrews: St Andrews Film Studies.

Chin, Daryl. 1997. “Festivals, Markets, Critics: Notes on the State of the Art Film.” PAJ 19 (1): 61–75.

Chin, Daryl, and Larry Qualls. 1998. “To Market, to Market.” PAJ 20 (1): 38–43.

Chin, Daryl, and Larry Qualls. 2001. “Open Circuits, Closed Markets: Festivals and Expositions of Film and Video.” PAJ 23 (1): 33–47.

Creton, Laurent. 1997. Cinéma Et Marché. Paris: Armand Colin/Masson.

de Valck, Marijke. 2013. “Sites of Initiation: Film Training Programs at Film Festivals.” In The Education of the Filmmaker in Europe, Australia, and Asia, edited by Mette Hjort, 127–45. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

de Valck, Marijke. 2014. “Supporting Art Cinema at a Time of Commercialization: Principles and Practices, the Case of the International Film Festival Rotterdam.” Poetics, no. 42: 40–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.poetic.2013.11.004.

Falicov, Tamara Leah. “Film Funding Opportunities for Latin American Filmmakers: A Case for Further North-South Collaboration in Training and Film Festival Initiatives.” 85–98.

Falicov, Tamara Leah. 2010. “Migrating from South to North: The Role of Film Festivals in Funding and Shaping Global South Film and Video.” In Locating Migrating Media, edited by Greg Elmer, Charles H. Davis, Janine Marchessault, and John McCullough, 3–21. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.

Falicov, Tamara Leah. 2013. “‘Cine En Construcción’/‘Films in Progress’: How Spanish and Latin American Film-Makers Negotiate the Construction of a Globalized Art-House Aesthetic.” TRAC 4 (2): 253–71. https://doi.org/10.1386/trac.4.2.253_1.

Falicov, Tamara Leah. 2016. “The ‘Festival Film’: Film Festival Funds as Cultural Intermediaries.” In Film Festivals: History, Theory, Method, Practice, edited by Marijke de Valck, Brendan Kredell, and Skadi Loist, 209–29. London, New York: Routledge.

Falicov, Tamara Leah. 2019. Latin American Film Industries. London, New York, NY: Bloomsbury; British Film Institute.

Fallaux, Emile, Malu Halasa, and Nupu Press, eds. 2003. True Variety: Funding the Art of World Cinema. Rotterdam, the Netherlands: International Film Festival Rotterdam.

Frías, Luis Gerardo, and Felipe Marañón. 2022. “Diversidad Cultural, Coproducciones Y Tendencias Fílmicas En Tres Festivales Europeos De Cine Clase A.” In Producción Y Consumo De Contenidos Audiovisuales. Coordinadores: Abordajes Desde La Comunicación Social, edited by Brenda A. Muñoz, Antonio Corona, and Gabriel Pérez Salazar, 15–49: Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila. [Cultural diversity, co-productions and film trends at three European class A film festivals.].

Havens, Timothy. 2011. “Inventing Universal Television: Restricted Access, Promotional Extravagance, and the Distribution of Value at Global Television Markets.” In Negotiating Values in the Creative Industries: Fairs, Festivals and Competitive Events, edited by Brian Moeran and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, 145–68. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Herrschner, Irina, and Kirsten Stevens. 2021. “Trans-National Encounters at the Berlinale: A Look from the Inside.” In Transnational German Cinema: Encountering Germany Through Film and Events, edited by Irina Herrschner, Kirsten Stevens, and Benjamin Nickl, 3-23. Cham: Springer.

Lauer, Jean Anne. 2013. “From ‘Expresión En Corto’ to Guanajuato International Film Festival: The Rise of Regional Support for Mexican Cinema in National and International Contexts.” TRAC 4 (2): 273–93. https://doi.org/10.1386/trac.4.2.273_1.

Lecler, Romain. 2015. “Nouvelles vagues: Le marché-festival de Cannes ou la fabrique française d’un universel cinématographique.” [New Waves: The Festival-market of Cannes, or the French Making of a Cinematographic Universal]. Actes Rech. Sci. Soc., no. 206-207: 14–33. https://doi.org/10.3917/arss.206.0014.

Lecler, Romain. 2016. “La Montée Des Marchés À Cannes: Le Circuit Des Échanges Audiovisuels Internationaux, Sa Chronologie Et Ses Trajets Professionnels.” [[How Markets Climbed the Steps in Cannes. On the International TV and Film Trade, its Circuit, its Chronology and its Professional Itineraries]]. Réseaux 34 (6 (#200)): 209–42. https://doi.org/10.3917/res.200.0209.

Mazars, Pierre, Aude Hespert, and Hélène Laurichesse. 2018. “Les Festivals Et Les Marchés Du Film.” [Festivals and film markets]. entrelacs, no. 14. https://doi.org/10.4000/entrelacs.4320.

Mezias, Stephen, Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, Ji-Hyun Kim, Silviya Svejenova, and Carmelo Mazza. 2011. “Transforming Film Product Identities: The Status Effects of European Premier Film Festivals, 1996–2005.” In Negotiating Values in the Creative Industries: Fairs, Festivals and Competitive Events, edited by Brian Moeran and Jesper Strandgaard Pedersen, 169–96. Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.

Odabasi, Eren. 2023. “Biennale College Cinema: Film Funding as a Financial and Educational Initiative.” Quarterly Review of Film and Video, 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/10509208.2023.2210983.

Ostrowska, Dorota. 2010. “International Film Festivals as Producers of World Cinema.” Cinema & Cie 10 (14-15): 145–50.

Paillard, Jérôme, and Hélène Laurichesse. 2018. “Le Marché Du Film Du Festival De Cannes.” [The Cannes Festival Film Market]. entrelacs, no. 14. https://doi.org/10.4000/entrelacs.4325.

Pan, Sevara. 2020. “A Niche for Creativity: An Interview with Thierry Garrel, Director of the French Department of Documentary Film at TV ARTE (1991-2008).” In Documentary Film Festivals Vol. 2: Changes, Challenges, Professional Perspectives, edited by Aida Vallejo and Ezra Winton, 191–99. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Peranson, Mark. 2013. “First You Get the Power, Then You Get the Money: Two Models of Film Festivals (2009).” In The Film Festivals Reader, edited by Dina Iordanova, 191–203. St Andrews: St Andrews Film Studies.

Perry, Simon. 1981. “Cannes, Festivals and the Movie Business.” Sight & Sound 50 (4): 226–32.

Perspex. 2006. “The First Asian Lesbian Film and Video Festival in Taipei Celebrates a New Form of Social Activism.” Inter-Asia Cultural Stud 7 (3): 527–32.

Qualls, Larry, and Daryl Chin. 2004. “Three Blind Mice: Fairs, Festivals, Expositions.” PAJ (78): 62–71.

Rhyne, Ragan. 2018. “Queer Capital, Queer Culture: Gay and Lesbian Film Festivals in the 1990s.” In International Film Festivals: Contemporary Cultures and History Beyond Venice and Cannes, edited by Tricia Jenkins, 153–78. London, New York: I.B.Tauris.

Ross, Miriam. 2011. “The Film Festival as Producer: Latin American Films and Rotterdam’s Hubert Bals Fund.” Screen 52 (2): 261–67. https://doi.org/10.1093/screen/hjr014.

Rueda, Amanda. 2018. “Festival Et Marché: Le Rôle Du Festival Cinélatino De Toulouse Dans L’industrie Du « Cinéma D’auteur ».” [Festival and markets: the role of the Toulouse Cinélatino Festival in the “auteur cinema” industry]. entrelacs, no. 14. https://doi.org/10.4000/entrelacs.4265.

Scharres, Barbara. 1990. “Still Number One? The Cannes International Film Festival and Market.” Independent 13 (8): 16–19.

Scherrer, Jean-Baptiste. 2018. “Le Festival Et Le Marché International Du Film D’animation D’annecy, Un Exemple De Réconciliation Entre La Loi Du Marché Et L’intervention Institutionnelle: [The Annecy International Animation Film Festival and Its Market (Mifa), an Example of Reconciliation Between the Law of the Market and Institutional Intervention].” entrelacs, no. 14. https://doi.org/10.4000/entrelacs.4290.

Shaw, Deborah. 2014. “Fonds de financement européens et cinéma latino-américain: Altérisation et cinéphilie bourgeoise dans La teta asustada de Claudia Llosa.” [European funding and Latin American cinema: Alterisation and bourgeois cinema in La teta asustada by Claudia Llosa]. Diogène, no. 245: 125–41. https://doi.org/10.3917/dio.245.0125.

Slováková, Andrea. 2020. “Connecting Festivals, Distributing Films: An Interview with Diana Tabakov, Acquisitions Manager at Doc Alliance Films VOD Platform.” In Documentary Film Festivals Vol. 2: Changes, Challenges, Professional Perspectives, edited by Aida Vallejo and Ezra Winton, 201–10. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Steinhart, Daniel. 2006. “Fostering International Cinema: The Rotterdam Film Festival, CineMart, and the Hubert Bals Fund.” Mediascape (2): 1–13. http://www.tft.ucla.edu/mediascape/Spring06_FosteringInternationalCinema.pdf. Accessed April 14, 2020.

Triana Toribio, Nuria. 2013. “Building Latin American Cinema in Europe: Cine en Construcción/Cinéma en construction.” In Contemporary Hispanic Cinema: Interrogating the Transnational in Spanish and Latin American Film, edited by Stephanie Dennison, 89–112 323. London: Tamesis Books.

Vallejo, Aida. 2013. “El Efecto Dominó: Nuevas Estrategias De Financiación Del Documental Creativo Ante La Crisis De La Televisión Pública En Europa.” In Crisis y políticas. La radiotelevisión pública en el punto de mira: Actas del II Congreso Internacional de comunicación audiovisual y publicidad, Bilboa 4 y 5 de octubre de 2012, edited by Miguel Á. Casado, Juan C. Miguel, Patxi Azpillaga, Ramón Zallo, Edorta Arana, and Josu Amezaga, 99–109. Leioa: Servicio Editorial de la Universidad del País Vasco. [The Domino Effect. New Funding Strategies for Creative Documentary in Response to the Crisis of Public Television in Europe].

Vallejo, Aida. 2015. “Documentary Filmmakers on the Circuit: A Festival Career from Czech Dream to Czech Peace.” In Post-1990 Documentary: Reconfiguring Independence, edited by Camille Deprez and Judith Pernin, 171–87. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Vallejo, Aida. 2017. “L’impact Économique Des Festivals De Cinéma: Entre La Communauté Cinéphile Et L’industrie Audiovisuelle.” [The Economic Impact of Film Festivals: Between the Cinephile Community and the Audiovisual Industry]. Les cahiers de Champs Visuels (14/15): 61–98.

Vinuela, Ana. 2018. “Le Marché De La Coproduction De La Berlinale Dans L’univers Du Cinéma Du Monde.” [The Berlinale co-production market within global cinema]. entrelacs, no. 14: 1–11. https://doi.org/10.4000/entrelacs.4332.

Wiedemann, Thomas, and Tanja C. Krainhöfer. 2020. “The Berlin International Film Festival: A Powerful Springboard and Gatekeeping Mechanism for Domestic Filmmaking.” Communications 45 (4): 389–413. https://doi.org/10.1515/commun-2019-2052.

Wolf, Reinhard W. 2017. “Laurels for Greenbacks: Making Money with Short Films in a Thriving Festival Scene.” shortfilm.de, December 11, 2017. https://www.shortfilm.de/en/lorbeeren-fuer-kohle-in-einer-bluehenden-festivallandschaft-mit-kurzfilmen-geld-verdienen/.

Wolf, Reinhard W. 2017. “Lorbeeren Für Kohle: In Einer Blühenden Festivallandschaft Mit Kurzfilmen Geld Verdienen.” shortfilm.de, December 11, 2017. https://www.shortfilm.de/lorbeeren-fuer-kohle-in-einer-bluehenden-festivallandschaft-mit-kurzfilmen-geld-verdienen/.

Wolf, Reinhard W. 2018. “Film Festivals in Cinema Programmes of Major Cities: A New Global Business Model.” shortfilm.de, June 19, 2018. https://www.shortfilm.de/en/filmfestivals-im-kinoprogramm-grosser-staedte-ein-neues-globales-geschaeftsmodell/.

Wolf, Reinhard W. 2018. “Filmfestivals Im Kinoprogramm Großer Städte: Ein Neues Globales Geschäftsmodell.” shortfilm.de, June 19, 2018. https://www.shortfilm.de/filmfestivals-im-kinoprogramm-grosser-staedte-ein-neues-globales-geschaeftsmodell/.

Xu, Min, and Stijn Reijnders. 2018. “Getting Close to the Media World? On the Attraction of Encountering Film Industry Professionals at Shanghai International Film Festival.” Participations 15 (1): 84–104.

Zachar, Gerald, and Michael Paul. 2016. “Filmfestivalreport Österreich: Zur Situation Der Österreichischen Filmfestivals: Finanzierung, Effekte & Strategische Aussichten.” http://film-festivals.at/media/presse/Filmfestivalreport_Oesterrei.pdf. im Auftrag des Forums österreichischer Filmfestivals.

Zachar, Gerald, and Michael Paul. 2018. “Evidencing the Economics of Film Festival Funding: Do Government Subsidies Help?” In Handbook of State Aid for Film: Finance, Industries and Regulation, edited by Paul C. Murschetz, Roland Teichmann, and Matthias Karmasin, 481–505. Cham: Springer International.

(Last updated: 11. April 2024)